Cyril


Cyril
   Patriarch of Alexandria (qq.v.) from 412-444, and arch-opponent of Nestorianism (q.v.). He opposed Jews (q.v.) and pagans, indeed any rival to his ecclesiastical authority, and he was inclined to resort to violence and intrigue to overcome his opponents. Until 428 the scope of his ambition was Alexandria itself, where he became locked in a power struggle with the civil governor, a pagan named Orestes who was friends with the brilliant pagan philosopher Hypatia (q.v.). Cyril's henchmen included 500 monks from the Nitrian desert (q.v.), and hundreds of lay brothers, some of whom assassinated Hypatia, chopping her body up and burning it. In 428 Cyril's ambition moved to a larger struggle with Nestorius (q.v.), bishop of Constantinople (qq.v.), whose rivalry with Alexandria went back to 381, when the Second Ecumenical Council (q.v.) ranked the see (q.v.) of Constantinople above that of Alexandria. Moreover, Cyril was a theologian who had wrestled with the nature of Christ's human and divine natures. He disagreed with Nestorius's view that the Virgin Mary had given birth only to the man Jesus, and could not, therefore, be called Theotokos (q.v.), meaning Mother of God. In 431 at the Council of Ephesus (q.v.) Cyril engineered the condemnation of Nestorius, with the help of street violence and 1,500 pounds of gold used to bribe members of Theodosius II's (q.v.) court. Ironically, Cyril's own theological views about Christ inspired Monophysitism (q.v.), which Cyril's successor Dioskoros (q.v.) embraced. Condemnation of Monophysitism in 451 at the Council of Chalcedon (q.v.) was a stinging humiliation for the see of Alexandria.

Historical Dictionary of Byzantium . .

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  • Cyril — Gender Male Origin Word/Name Greek Other names Related names Cyryl, Cyrillus, Kiril Cyril (also Cyrillus or Cyryl) is a masculine given na …   Wikipedia

  • Cyril VI — may refer to: Cyril VI Tanas, Patriarch of the Melkite Greek Catholic Church Pope Cyril VI of Alexandria, Pope and Patriarch of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the same title. If an …   Wikipedia

  • Cyril — m English: from the post classical Greek name Kyrillos, a derivative of kyrios lord. It was borne by a large number of early saints, most notably the theologians Cyril of Alexandria and Cyril of Jerusalem. It was also the name of one of the Greek …   First names dictionary

  • Cyril — Cyril, OK U.S. town in Oklahoma Population (2000): 1168 Housing Units (2000): 523 Land area (2000): 0.575779 sq. miles (1.491260 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 0.575779 sq. miles (1.491260 sq.… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Cyril, OK — U.S. town in Oklahoma Population (2000): 1168 Housing Units (2000): 523 Land area (2000): 0.575779 sq. miles (1.491260 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 0.575779 sq. miles (1.491260 sq. km) FIPS… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Cyril — Cyril1 [sir′əl] n. [LL Cyrillus < Gr Kyrillos, lit., lordly < kyrios, a lord: see CHURCH] a masculine name Cyril2 [sir′əl] 1. Saint (A.D. 376? 444); Christian theologian: archbishop of Alexandria (412 444): his day is June 27 2. Saint (born …   English World dictionary

  • Cyril — Cyrille Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Cyrille est un nom propre qui se réfère à : Sommaire 1 Prénom et son origine 1.1 Variantes linguistiques …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Cyril — /sir euhl/, n. 1. Saint ( Apostle of the Slavs ), A.D. 827 869, Greek missionary to the Moravians. 2. a male given name. * * * (as used in expressions) Burt Sir Cyril Lodowic Cyril and Methodius Saints Cyril of Alexandria Saint Cyril of Jerusalem …   Universalium

  • Cyril —    , CYRILUC ALPHABET    The alphabet used in the Soviet Union and some other Slavic countries is the Cyrillic alphabet, a modified Greek alphabet. The author of this invention has never been satisfactorily established, but the name Cyril has… …   Dictionary of eponyms

  • Cyril — (as used in expressions) Burt, Sir Cyril (Lodowic) Darlington, Cyril Dean James, C(yril) L(ionel) R(obert) Parkinson, C(yril) Northcote Smith, Cyril Stanley Tourneur, Cyril …   Enciclopedia Universal


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